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  • Valence bond theory
  • Theory of chemical bonding based on overlap of half-filled atomic orbitals between two atoms. Orbital hybridization is an important element of valence bond theory
  • Valence electrons
  • The outermost electrons of an atom. For second-row elements these are the 2s and 2p electrons
  • Valence shell
  • The group of orbitals, filled and unfilled, responsible for the characteristic chemical properties of an atom.
  • Valence shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) model
  • Method for predicting the shape of a molecule based on the notion that electron pairs surrounding a central atom repel one another. Four electron pairs will arrange themselves in a tetrahedral geometry, three will assume a trigonal planar geometry, and two electron pairs will adopt a linear arrangement.
  • Van der Waals forces
  • Intermolecular forces that do not involve ions (dipole-dipole, dipole/induced-dipole, and induced-dipole/induced-dipole forces)
  • Vander Waals strain
  • Destabilization that results when two atoms or groups approach each other too closely. Also know as van der Waals repulsion
  • Vicinal
  • Describing two atoms or groups attached to adjacent atoms
  • Vicinal coupling
  • Coupling of the nuclear spins of atoms X and Y on adjacent atoms as in X-A-B-Y. Vicinal coupling is the most common cause of spin-spin splitting in 1H NMR spectroscopy
  • Vicinal dihalide
  • A compound containing two halogens on adjacent carbons
  • Vicinal diol
  • Compound that has two hydroxyl (-OH) groups on adjacent sp3-hybridized carbons
  • Vicinal halohydrin
  • A compound containing a halogen and a hydroxyl group on adjacent carbons
  • Vinyl group
  • The group H2C=CH-
  • Vinylic carbon
  • A carbon that is doubly bonded to another carbon. Atoms or groups attached to a vinylic carbon are termed vinylic substituents
  • Vitalism
  • A nineteenth-century theory that divided chemical substances into two main classes, organic and inorganic, according to whether they originated in living (animal or vegetable) or nonliving (mineral) matter, respectively. Vitalist doctrine held that the conversion of inorganic substances to organic ones could be accomplished only through the action of some “vital force”
Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology