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  • Macromolecule
  • A substance containing a large number of atoms and having a high molecular weight
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • A diagnostic method in medicine in which tissues are examined by NMR
  • Malonic ester synthesis
  • Synthetic method for the preparation of carboxylic acids involving alkylation of the enolate of diethyl malonate  FIG as the key carbon-carbon bond-forming step
  • Maltose
  • A disaccharide obtained from starch in which two glucose units are joined by an α(1,4)-glycosidic link
  • Markovnikov’s rule
  • An unsymmetrical reagent adds to an unsymmetrical double bond in the direction that places the positive part of the reagent on the carbon of the double bond that has the greater number of hydrogens
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Analytical method in which a molecule is ionized and the various ions are examined on the basis of their mass-to-charge ratio
  • Mechanism
  • The sequence of steps that describes how a chemical reaction occurs; a description of the intermediates and transition states that are involved during the transformation of reactants to products
  • Mercaptan
  • An old name for the class of compounds now known as thiols
  • Merrifield method
  • See solid-phase peptide synthesis
  • meso compound
  • Organic compound that contain multiple chiral centers, but due to symmetry elements (such as a mirror plane) the molecule as a whole is achiral and will not rotate plane polarized light.
  • Meso stereoisomer
  • An achiral molecule that has chirality centers. The most common kind of meso compound is a molecule with two chriality centers and a plane of symmetry
  • Messenger RNA (mRNA)
  • A polynucleotide of ribose that “reads” the sequence of bases in DNA and interacts with tRNAs in the ribosomes to promote protein biosynthesis
  • Meta
  • Term describing a 1,3 relationships between substituents on a benzene ring
  • Meta director
  • A group that when present on benzene ring directs an incoming electrophile to a position meta to itself
  • Metallocene
  • A transition metal complex that bears a cyclopentadienyl ligand
  • Metalloenzyme
  • An enzyme in which a metal ion at the active site contributes in a chemically significant way to the catalytic activity
  • Methanogen
  • An organism that produces methane
  • Methine group
  • The group CH
  • Methyl group
  • The group –CH3
  • Methylene group
  • group –CH2-
  • Mevalonic acid
  • An intermediate in the biosynthesis of steroids from acetyl coenzyme A
  • Micelle
  • A spherical aggregate of species such as carboxylate salts of fatty acids that contain a lipophilic end and a hydrophilic end. Micelles containing 50-100 carboxylate salts of fatty acids are soaps.
  • Michael reaction
  • The conjugate addition of a carbanion (usually an enolate) to an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound
  • Microscopic reversibility
  • The principle that the intermediates and transition states in the forward and backward stages of a reversible reaction are identical, but are encountered in the reverse order
  • Molar absorptivity
  • A measure of the intensity of a peak, usually in UV-VIS spectroscopy
  • Molecular dipole moment
  • The overall measured dipole moment of a molecule. It can be calculated as the resultant (or vector sum) of all the individual bond dipole moments
  • Molecular formula
  • Chemical formula in which subscripts are used to indicate the number of atoms of each element present in one molecule. In organic compounds, carbon is cited first, hydrogen second, and the remaining elements in alphabetical order
  • Molecular ion
  • In mass spectrometry, the species formed by loss of an electron from a molecule
  • Molecular orbital theory

  • Theory of chemical bonding in which electrons are assumed to occupy orbitals in molecules much as they occupy orbitals in atoms. The molecular orbitals are described as combinations of the orbitals of all of the atoms that make up the molecule
  • Molecularity

  • The number of species that react together in the same elementary step of a reaction mechanism
Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology