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Glossary
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  • G
  • Symbol for Gibbs energy
  • Gabriel synthesis
  • Method for the synthesis of primary alkylamines in which a key step is the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond by alkylation of the potassium salt or phthalimide. FIG
  • Gauche
  • Term describing the position relative to each other two substituents on adjacent atoms when the angle between their bonds is on the order of 60°. Atoms X and Y in the structure shown are gauche to each other. FIG
  • geminal
  • Describing substituents or atoms attached to the same atom
  • Geminal dihalide
  • A dihalide of the form R2CX2, in which the two halogen substituents are located on the same carbon
  • Geminal diol
  • The hydrate R2C(OH)2 of an aldehyde or a ketone.
  • Generic name
  • the name of a drug as designated by the U.S. Adopted Names Council.
  • Genetic code
  • The relationship between triplets of nucleotide bases in messenger RNA and amino acids incorporated into a protein in DNA-directed protein biosynthesis.
  • Genome
  • The aggregate of all the genes that determine what an organism becomes
  • Genomics
  • The study of genome sequences and their function
  • Gibbs energy
  • The free energy (energy available to do work) of a system
  • Globular protein
  • An approximately spherically shaped protein that forms a colloidal dispersion in water. Most enzymes are globular proteins.
  • Glycogen
  • A Polysaccharide present in animals that is derived from glucose. Similar in structure to amylopectin
  • Glycolysis
  • Biochemical process in which glucose is converted to pyruvate with release of energy
  • Glycoside
  • A carbohydrate derivative in which the hydroxyl group at the anomeric position has been replaced by some other group. An O-glycoside is an ether of a carbohydrate in which the anomeric position bears an alkoxy group.
  • Graft copolymer
  • A copolymer of monomer A and D in which branches of poly-A are attached to a poly-B main chain
  • Grain alcohol
  • A common name for ethanol (CH3CH2OH)
  • Grignard reagent
  • An organomagnesium compound of the type RMgX formed by the reaction of magnesium with an alkyl or aryl halide.
Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology