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  • Fats and oils
  • Triesters of glycerol. Fats are solid at room temperature, oils are liquids
  • Fatty acid
  • Carboxylic acids obtained by hydrolysis of fats and oils. Fatty acids typically have unbranched chains and contain an even number of carbon atoms in the range of 12-20 carbons. They may include one or more double bonds
  • Fatty acid synthetase
  • Complex of enzymes that catalyzes the biosynthesis of fatty acids from acetate
  • Fibrous protein
  • A protein consisting of bundled chains of elongated filaments
  • Field effect
  • An electronic effect in a molecule that is transmitted from a substituent to a reaction site via the medium (e.g., solvent)
  • Fingerprint region
  • The region 1500-500cm-1 of an infrared spectrum. This region is less characteristic of functional groups than others, but varies so much from one molecule to another that it can be used to determine whether two substances are identical or not
  • Fischer esterification
  • Acid-catalyzed ester formation between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid : FIG
  • Fischer projection
  • Method for representing stereochemical relationships. The four bonds to a tetrahedral carbon are represented by a cross. The horizontal bonds are understood to project toward the viewer and the vertical bonds away from the viewer. FIG
  • Formal Charge
  • The charge, either positive or negative, on an atom calculated by subtracting from the number of valence electrons in the neutral atom a number equal to the sum of its unshared electrons plus half the electrons in its covalent bonds.
  • Fragmentation pattern
  • In mass spectrometry, the ions produced by dissociation of the molecular ion
  • Free energy
  • The available energy of a system; symbol, G. See also Gibbs Energy
  • Free radical
  • Neutral species in which one of the electrons in the valence shell of carbon is unpaired. An example is methyl radical,  FIG
  • Free-radical polymerization
  • An alkene polymerization proceeding via free-radical intermediates
  • Frequency
  • Number of waves per unit of time. Although often expressed in hertz (Hz), or cycles per second, the SI unit for frequency is s-1
  • Friedel-Crafts acylation
  • An electrophilic aromatic substitution in which an aromatic compound reacts with an acyl chloride or a carboxylic acid anhydride in the presence of aluminum chloride. An acyl group becomes bonded to the ring. FIG
  • Friedel-Crafts alkylation
  • An electrophilic aromatic substitution in which an aromatic compound reacts with an alkyl halide in the presence of aluminum chloride. An alkyl group becomes bonded to the ring.  FIG
  • Fries rearrangement
  • Aluminum chloride-promoted rearrangement of an aryl ester to a ring-acylated derivative of phenol. FIG
  • Frontier orbitals
  • Orbitals involved in a chemical reaction, usually the highest occupied molecular orbital of one reactant and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of another
  • Frost's circle
  • A mnemonic that gives the Hückel π MOs for cyclic conjugated molecules and ions
  • Functional class nomenclature
  • Type of IUPAC nomenclature in which compounds are named according to functional group families. The last word in the name identifies the functional group; the first word designates the alkyl or aryl group that bears the functional group. Methyl bromide, methyl alcohol, and diethyl ether are examples of functional class names
  • Functional group
  • An atom or a group of atoms in a molecule responsible for its reactivity under a given set of conditions
  • Furanose form
  • Five-membered ring arising via cyclic hemiacetal formation between the carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group of a carbohydrate
Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology