A group that when present in place of hydrogen causes a particular reaction to occur more slowly. The term is most often applied to the effect of substituent on the rate of electrophilic aromatic substitution.
A unit of electrical dipole moment.
Unit customarily used for measure dipole moments : EQUATION
Reaction of the type RCO2H -> RH + CO2, in which carbon dioxide is lost from a carboxylic acid. Decarboxylation normally occurs readily only when the carboxylic acid is a 1,3-dicarboxylic acid or a Î²-keto acid.
In NMR spectroscopy, any process that destroys the coupling of nuclear spins between two nuclei. Two types of decoupling are employed in 13C NMR spectroscopy. Broadband decoupling removes all the 1H-13C couplings; off-resonance decoupling removes all 1H-13C couplings except those between directly bonded atoms.
Removal of H and OH from adjacent atoms. The term is most commonly employed in the preparation of alkenes by heating alcohols in the presence of an acid catalyst. 1,2- 1,3- 1,4-Dehydrobenzene
Elimination in which H2 is lost from adjacent atoms. The term is most commonly encountered in the industrial preparation of ethylene from ethane, propene from propane, 1,3-butadiene from butane, and styrene from ethylbenzene.
Reaction in which and alkyl halide on being treated with a base such as sodium ethoxide, is converted to an alkene by loss of a proton from one carbon and the halogen from the adjacent carbon.
Association of an electron with more than one atom. The simplest example is the shared electron pair (covalent) bond. Delocalization is important in conjugated Ï€ electron systems, where an electron may be associated with several carbon atoms
synonymous with resonance energy.
A carbohydrate in which one of the hydroxyl groups has been replaced by a hydrogen
Abbreviation for Âdistortionless enhancement of polarization transfer. DEPT is an NMR technique that reveals the number of hydrogens directly attached to a carbon responsible for a particular signal
substances that clean by micellar action. Although the term usually refers to a synthetic detergent, soaps are also detergents.
The difference in a property, usually reaction rate, that results when one or more atoms of 1H in a compound are replaced by 2H.
Stereoisomers that are not enantiomers â€“ stereoisomers that are not mirror images of one another.
Describing two atoms or groups in a molecule that are attached to the same atom but are in stereochemically different environments that are not mirror images of each other. The two protons shown in bold in H2C=CHCl, for example, are diastereotopic. One is cis to chlorine, the other is trans.
Ion of the type R-N+=N:. aryl diazonium ions are formed by treatment of primary aromatic amines with nitrous acid. They are extremely useful in the preparation of aryl halides, phenols, and aryl cyanides.
The reaction by which a primary amine is converted to the corresponding diazonium ion by nitrosation.
An intramolecular version of the Claisen condensation.
A measure of the ability of a material to disperse the force of attraction between oppositely charged particles. The symbol for dielectric constant is Ïµ.
Conjugate addition of an alkene to a conjugated diene to give a cyclohexane derivative. Diels-Alder reactions are extremely useful in synthesis.
The alkene that adds to the diene in a Diels-Alder reaction.
Reaction or sequence of reactions in which an alkene is converted to a vicinal diol.
molecule formed by the combination of two identical molecules
A compound with two alcohol functional groups
A compound in which two Î±-amino acids are linked by an amide bond between the amino group of one and the carboxyl group of the other: FIG
Product of the attractive force between two opposite charges and the distance between them. Dipole moment has the symbol Âµ and is measure in Debye units (D).
A force of attraction between oppositely polarized atoms
A force of attraction that results when a species with a permanent dipole induces a complementary dipole in a second species.
Synonymous with 1,2-addition.