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document Thermodynamics and Stability
Although you have encountered basic concepts of thermodynamics in general chemistry, organic chemistry is concerned with slightly different applications of these concepts.  Chemical processes usually occur because they are thermodynamically favorable, which means from high energy to...
25 Jan, 2011 Comments: 0
document Hyperconjugation
Hyperconjugation is the stabilizing interaction that results from the interaction of the electrons in a σ-bond (usually C-H or C-C) with an adjacent empty or partially filled p-orbital or a π-orbital to give an extended molecular orbital that increases the stability of the system....
02 Aug, 2011 Comments: 0
document Inductive Effects
An inductive effect is an electronic effect due to the polarization of σ bonds within a molecule or ion. This is typically due to an electronegativity difference between the atoms at either end of the bond. The more electronegative atom pulls the electrons in the bond towards itself...
01 Feb, 2012 Comments: 0
document Ring Strain
The destabilization of a cyclic structure compared to a related non-cyclic structure, mainly due to angle (desire to be tetrahedral) and torsional (desire to minimize eclipsed or unfavorable bond interactions) strain. This extra energy is released when the ring is broken.  Ring strain is a...
16 Mar, 2011 Comments: 0
document Steric Strain
A composite of the other strains (angle, torsional, Van der Waals) within a molecule. Steric strain is usually connected with spatial conflicts of atoms or bonds within a molecule.
16 Mar, 2011 Comments: 0
document Van der Waals Strain
Destabilization due to the repulsion between the electron clouds of atoms or groups. Also known as Van der Waals repulsion. This occurs when atoms or groups are too close to each other due to the electrostatic repulsion of the electrons.
16 Mar, 2011 Comments: 0
document Resonance
In certain cases, molecules can be represented by more than one reasonable Lewis structure that differs only in the location of π electrons. Electrons in σ bonds have a fixed location and so they are said to be localized. In contrast, π electrons that can be drawn in different...
01 Feb, 2012 Comments: 0

Department of Chemistry & Chemical Biology